Explain Types of OS, Features, and Examples
In what way does an operating system differ from a computer?
An Operating System (OS) is a piece of software that serves as a link between computer hardware components and the end-user (or user interface). To allow other programs to run on a computer system, every computer system must have at least one operating system. Applications such as browsers, Microsoft Office, notepad games, and so on, require an environment to run and perform their functions.
The operating system allows you to communicate with the computer even if you do not understand the computer’s native language. Users will be unable to use any computer or mobile device if they do not have an operating system installed on their computer or device.
History Of OS
The following are some examples of operating systems that have the most recent market share.
Operating System Types There are several types of operating systems (OS)
The following are the most popular types of operating systems (also known as operating systems):
Batch Operating System is an acronym that stands for Batch Operating System.
OS with multitasking and time-sharing capabilities
Operating system with multiple processors
Real-Time Operating System
OS with a distributed architecture
Operating System for Networks
Operating System for Mobile Devices
Examples of Operating System with Market Share
|Windows Phone OS
A batch operating system is one in which the user never interacts with the computer directly. Users prepare their jobs on an offline device, such as a punch card, and then submit them to the computer operator in this type of operating system (OS).
Multi-Tasking/Time-sharing Operating systems are programs that run on a computer.
It is possible for people who are at different terminals (shells) to use the same computer system at the same time when using a time-sharing operating system. Time-sharing refers to the use of a computer’s processor time (CPU) that is shared among multiple users.
Types of Operating System (OS)
Real-time operating system
The time interval required by a real-time operating system to process and respond to inputs is extremely short. Real-time operating systems include, for example, military software systems and space software systems.
DOS (Distributed Operating System) is an abbreviation for Distributed Operating System.
Distributed systems make use of a large number of processors that are distributed across multiple machines to provide extremely fast computation to their users.
Network Operating System (NOS) is an acronym that stands for Network Operating System.
The Network Operating System (NOS) is installed on a server. In addition, it can manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and various other networking functions and features.
Operating System for Mobile Devices
Mobile operating systems are those operating systems that are specifically designed to run on mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets, and wearables.
Android and iOS are two of the most well-known mobile operating systems, but there are others, such as BlackBerry, Web, and watchOS.
The Operating System’s Features and Functions
A few examples of typical operating system functions are the management of memory, files, processes, the I/O system and devices, security, and so on.
The following are the most important features of the operating system:
The Operating System’s Features and Functions
Each of the following functions is carried out by software in an operating system:
Process management is a feature of the operating system that allows it to create and delete processes. It also includes mechanisms for the synchronization and communication of processes between one another.
Allocation and de-allocation of memory space: The memory management module is responsible for the task of allocating and releasing memory space to programs that require it.
All file-related activities such as organization, storage, retrieval, naming, and sharing of files as well as protection of files are managed by file management software.
Device Management: Device management is in charge of keeping track of all of the devices. The I/O controller is the name given to the module that is also responsible for this task. The task of allocating and de-allocating devices is also performed by this component.
I/O System Management: One of the primary goals of any operating system is to keep the user’s attention away from the peculiarities of the hardware devices under consideration.
Secondary-Storage Management: Systems have several levels of storage, including primary storage, secondary storage, and cache storage. Primary storage is the most important level of storage, followed by secondary storage and cache storage. Data and instructions must be stored in primary storage or cache so that they can be referenced by a program that is running.
Security: The security module of a computer system protects the data and information stored on the system from malicious software and unauthorized access.
In this module, commands are interpreted and system resources are used to process the commands that have been given to it by the.
Distribution of workloads: A distributed system is a collection of processors that do not share a memory, hardware devices, or a clock. The processors communicate with one another through a network of interconnected computers.
Job accounting is the process of keeping track of the time and resources spent by different jobs and users.
Compiler and interpreter management: This includes the coordination and assignment of compilers, interpreters, and other software resources among the various users of computer systems.
Functions of Operating System
Here are a list of important features of OS:
Protected and supervisor modes are available.
Disk access and file systems are permitted. Drivers for devices Security in the Networking
Execution of a program
Memory management Virtual Memory Multitasking Virtual Memory Management
Taking care of I/O operations
Manipulation of the file system is what this is.
Detection and correction of errors
Allocation of resources
Protection of information and natural resources
Characteristics of the Operating System
Features of Operating System (OS)
Allows you to conceal the specifics of your hardware by constructing an abstraction.
With a graphical user interface, it is simple to use.
Ensures that a user’s programs and applications can be executed in a safe environment.
Because of this, the operating system must ensure that the computer system is easy to use.
The operating system serves as a link between applications and their corresponding hardware components.
It makes computer system resources available in a format that is simple to use.
This component serves as a link between all of the system’s hardware and software components.
Advantage of Operating System
If there is a problem with the operating system, you may lose all of the information that has been stored on your system.
Operating system software is prohibitively expensive for small and medium-sized businesses, adding to their financial burden. As an illustration, consider Windows.
It is impossible to be completely secure because a threat can strike at any time.
Disadvantages of Operating System
When it comes to computers, the kernel is the most important part of the system. Aside from managing communication between software and hardware, the kernel’s only function is to manage the communication between the two. A Kernel is the fundamental building block of a computer. It enables the communication between the hardware and the software to be accomplished. While the Kernel is the most internal component of an operating system, the shell is the most external component.
What is Kernel in Operating System?
Kernel Programming: An Overview
Processes are scheduled at a low level of abstraction.
Inter-process communication is important.
Synchronization of processes
Changing the context
Kernels are classified into several categories.
However, there are many different types of kernels available, and the two most widely used kernels are as follows:
Types of Kernel
1. It is a monolithic structure.
A monolithic kernel is a piece of code or a block of code that makes up a program. It enables the operating system to provide all of the services that are required. It is a straightforward design that establishes a distinct communication layer between the hardware and the software components.
2lMicrokernels are a type of kernel that is smaller than a microkernel.
The microkernel is in charge of managing all system resources. The services provided by this type of kernel are implemented in different address spaces. A subset of user services is stored in user address space, whereas kernel services are stored under the kernel address space hierarchy. As a result, it contributes to the reduction in the size of both the kernel and the operating system.
Difference between Firmware and Operating System
Below are the Key Differences between Firmware and Operating System:
|Define Firmware: Firmware is one kind of programming that is embedded on a chip in the device which controls that specific device.
|Define Operating System: OS provides functionality over and above that which is provided by the firmware.
|Firmware is programs that have been encoded by the manufacturer of the IC or something and cannot be changed.
|OS is a program that can be installed by the user and can be changed.
|It is stored on non-volatile memory.
|OS is stored on the hard drive.
Below are the Key Differences between 32-Bit and 64-Bit Operating systems:
|Architecture and Software
|Allow 32 bits of data processing simultaneously
|Allow 64 bits of data processing simultaneously
|32-bit applications require 32-bit OS and CPUs.
|64-bit applications require a 64-bit OS and CPU.
|All versions of Windows 8, Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP, Linux, etc.
|Windows XP Professional, Vista, 7, Mac OS X, and Linux.
|32-bit systems are limited to 3.2 GB of RAM.
|64-bit systems allow a maximum of 17 Billion GB of RAM.