What is C Programming Language? Basics, Introduction, History
What is the C programming language and how does it work?
C is a general-purpose programming language that is extremely popular because it is easy to learn and use while remaining simple and flexible. c++ is a structured programming language that is machine-independent and is frequently employed in the development of various software applications, operating systems (such as Windows), and many other complex programmes such as the Oracle database and the Git repository, the Python interpreter, and others.
It is said that the programming language ‘C’ was created by the gods. C is often referred to as the “foundation language” of programming. If you are familiar with the programming language ‘C,’ you will find it relatively easy to pick up on the concepts of the other programming languages that make use of the ‘C’ concept.
When working with the C programming language, it is essential to have a solid understanding of computer memory mechanisms because this is an important aspect to consider.
History of C language
The programming language ‘ALGOL’ is considered to be the originator or forefather of all programming languages. It was first introduced to the public in 1960. ‘ALGOL’ was a term that was frequently heard in European countries. The concept of structured programming was introduced to the developer community through the programme ‘ALGOL.’ In 1967, the introduction of a new computer programming language known as ‘BCPL,’ which stands for Basic Combined Programming Language, was announced. BCPL was created and developed by Martin Richards with the goal of making it easier to write system software. This was the era of programming languages, and it was a very exciting time. A new programming language called ‘B’ was created by Ken Thompson in 1970, three years after the introduction of ‘BCPL,’ and it contained many of the same features as the original. The UNIX operating system was used in the development of this programming language at AT&T and Bell Laboratories. Both the ‘BCPL’ and the ‘B’ programming languages were used for system programming.
A great computer scientist named Dennis Ritchie worked at Bell Laboratories in 1972, where he developed a new programming language called ‘C.’ It was created by combining the programming languages ‘ALGOL’, ‘BCPL’, and ‘B’. The ‘C’ programming language contains all of the characteristics of these languages, as well as many additional concepts that distinguish it from other programming languages.
‘C’ is a powerful programming language that is strongly associated with the UNIX operating system and its associated software. Even the majority of the UNIX operating system is written in the C programming language. In the beginning, ‘C’ programming was only available on the UNIX operating system; however, as it gained popularity around the world, it became commercially viable, and many compilers were released for use on a variety of platforms. Today, the programming language ‘C’ can be found running on a wide range of operating systems and hardware platforms. As the language began to evolve, a number of different versions of the language were released. It became difficult for the developers to keep up with the latest version at times because the systems were still running on older versions of the operating system. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) defined a commercial standard for the ‘C’ programming language in 1989 in order to ensure that the ‘C’ programming language would remain standard. Later, in 1990, the International Standards Organization (ISO) approved it as a global standard. It is also known as ANSI C, which stands for American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
C Basic Commands
Following are the basic commands in C programming language:
|C Basic commands
|This command includes standard input output header file(stdio.h) from the C library before compiling a C program
|It is the main function from where C program execution begins.
|Indicates the beginning of the main function.
|Whatever written inside this command “/* */” inside a C program, it will not be considered for compilation and execution.
|This command prints the output on the screen.
|This command is used for any character input from keyboard.
This command is used to terminate a C program (main function) and it returns 0.
It is used to indicate the end of the main function.
Languages such as C++ and Java are derived from the ‘C’ programming language. These programming languages are widely used in a variety of technological fields. C serves as a foundation for a large number of other programming languages that are currently in use.
Where is C used? Key Applications
In embedded systems, the ‘C’ programming language is widely used.
It is employed in the development of system applications.
It is widely employed in the development of desktop applications.
The ‘C’ programming language is used by Adobe to develop the vast majority of their applications.
When it comes to developing browsers and their extensions, it is the tool of choice. The ‘C’ programming language is used in the development of Google’s Chromium web browser.
It is employed in the development of databases. MySQL is the most widely used database software, and it is written in the programming language ‘C’.
In the development of an operating system, it is utilised. ‘C’ programming language is used in the development of operating systems such as Apple’s OS X, Microsoft’s Windows, and Symbian. It is used in the development of operating systems for desktop computers as well as mobile phones.
It is employed in the compilation of compilers.
It is widely used in Internet of Things (IoT) applications.
Why learn C Language?
As we learned earlier, the programming language ‘C’ serves as a foundation for many other programming languages. As a result, learning ‘C’ as the primary programming language will be extremely beneficial when learning other programming languages. It uses many of the same concepts as C++, including data types, operators, control statements, and others. The letter ‘C’ can be found in a wide variety of applications. It is a straightforward language that allows for faster execution. In today’s market, there are numerous opportunities for ‘C’ developers to pursue their careers.
The programming language ‘C’ is a structured programming language in which a programme is divided into different modules. Each module can be written independently, and when they are combined, they form a single ‘C’ programme. Processes can be tested, maintained, and debugged more easily with this structure in place.
“C” contains 32 keywords, a variety of data types, and a collection of powerful built-in functions that help programmers to be more productive.
Another advantage of ‘C’ programming is that it is capable of self-extension. A ‘C’ programme contains a number of functions that are all part of a library of functions. We have the ability to add our own features and functions to the library. In our programme, we have the ability to access and use these functions whenever we want. When working with complex programming, this feature makes things a lot simpler.
There are a variety of compilers available on the market that can be used to execute programmes written in this programming language.
Because it is a highly portable language, programmes written in the ‘C’ programming language can be run on a variety of different machines. This feature is required if we wish to use or execute the code on a different computer than the one on which it was written.
How C Programming Language Works?
C is a compiled programming language. A compiler is a specialised tool that compiles a programme and converts it into an object file that can be read by a computer’s processor. Following the completion of the compilation process, the linker will combine various object files into a single executable file that can be used to run the programme. The flow diagram below depicts the execution of a ‘C’ programme in action.
Nowadays, a variety of compilers are available for download on the internet, and you can use any of them. The functionality will never change, and the vast majority of compilers will include the features necessary to run both ‘C’ and ‘C++’ programmes simultaneously.
The following is a list of popular compilers that can be found on the internet:
Clang is a programming language compiler.
MinGW is a compiler for the MinGW operating system (Minimalist GNU for Windows)
‘C’ compiler that is portable
Turbo C is a computer programme that accelerates the processing of data.