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Stack c++

Stack in C++ STL with Example

A stack is a type of data structure that follows the LIFO (Last In First Out) method of operation while it is being used. The std::stack only permits the addition of elements and the removal of elements from one end.

A container adapter is represented by the std::stack class. Data of a comparable type is stored in containers, which are objects. A stack can be made by combining multiple sequence containers together. In the event that no container is specified, the deque containe will be utilised as the default option. Iterators are not supported by container adapters, which means that they cannot be used to alter data in any way.

Stack Syntax

You will understand Stack Syntax by going through this C++ course.
In order to establish a stack, we need to make sure that our code includes the stack> header file. After that, we define the std::stack by utilising this syntax:

Template <class Type, class Container = deque<Type> > class hierarchy;

The value of the Type variable indicates the type of element that is stored in the std::stack. It could be any type that is valid in C++, or even a type that was specified by the user.

The underlying container object’s Type is referred to as the Container.
Member Types

The following are types of stack members:

Member Types

value type is the first parameter of the template, and it is a T. It indicates the different types of elements. Container type is the second template argument, and it is associated with the Container class. It indicates the sort of container that lies under the surface.

Unsigned integral type denoted by size type.

Operations performed in the Stack

The following elementary processes can be performed on a C++ stack:

Operations in Stack

  1. Push Causes an item to be added to the stack; also known as “pushing.”
  2. Pop is shorthand for “remove from stack,” and what it does is literally that.
  3. peek is an operation that returns the item that is currently on top of the stack without deleting it.
  4. IsFull checks to see if a stack is at its maximum capacity.
  5. isEmpty – Determines whether or not a stack contains any elements.
  6. The Implementation of Stacks

Stack Implementation

Step 1) At the outset, we will have a stack that is empty. The value -1 is placed at the top of an empty stack.

Step 2) The following step involves inserting the element number 5 into the stack. The element number 5 will be indicated at the top of the stack.

Step 3: Next, we have added element 50 to the pile that we are working with. The item at the top of the stack moves so that it is pointing to element 50.

Step 4) At this point, we have carried out a pop operation, which involves removing the most recently added piece from the stack. The element with the index number 50 is removed from the stack. The element number 5 is currently highlighted at the top of the stack.

both push() and pop ()

The stacked items:

A new item is added to the top of the stack whenever the push() function is called. Following the insertion, the size of the stack will be increased by 1. The syntax for the function is as follows:

push() and pop()

stack.push(value)

The value represents the item that should be added to the stack.

The stack’s most recent piece is removed when the stack::pop() method is called. This is the most recent item to be added to the pile. After the removal of the item, the size of the stack is decreased by 1. The syntax of the function is as follows:

stack.pop()

There are no input parameters required for the function.

Example 1:

#include <iostream>
#include’stack’ using the std namespace; int main();

stackint> st;’st.push(10),’st.push(20),’st.push(30), and’st.push(40); ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘; ‘;
st.pop(); \s st.pop();
while (!st.empty()) outputs cout followed by”; st.top(); st.pop(); Output:

The following is a snapshot of the source code:

Code Explanation:

In order to make advantage of the functions offered by iostream, our code will need to include its header file.

In order to use the functions provided by the stack, include the stack header file in our code.

Incorporate the std namespace into our code so that we can use its classes without directly calling it.

Invoke the method named main(). It is recommended that the logic of the programme be added inside of this function.

Establish a storage stack denoted by st for integer values.

  1. It is possible to add the value 10 to the stack by utilizing the push() function.
  2. It is possible to add the value 20 to the stack by utilizing the push() function.
  3. It is possible to add the value 30 to the stack by utilizing the push() function.
  4. It is possible to add the value 40 to the stack by utilizing the push() function.

To remove the top piece from the stack, which is the number 40, you can use the pop() function. The number 30 will now be the top element.

Make use of the pop() function to eliminate the element located at the top of the stack, which is the number 30. The value 20 will now serve as the top element.

To determine whether or not the stack contains any data, you can make use of a while loop and the empty() method. The NOT operator is denoted by the! symbol.

displaying on the terminal the items of the stack as they currently stand.

To pop something off the stack, call the pop() method.

This brings an end to the main body of the while loop.

This brings us to the end of the main() method body.

empty(), size(), top ()

You may utilize the built-in functions that come with stacks to experiment with both the stack itself and the values it stores. These are the following:

empty() determines whether or not a stack has any elements.

The size() function returns the size of the stack, often known as the number of elements included in the stack.

top() allows you to access the element of the stack that is at the top.

Example 2:

#include <iostream>
#include’stack’ while using the std namespace; void createStack (‘stack’, ‘int> mystack’);
stack of integers ms = mystack; while (ms.empty()) ms is not empty ms.top(); ms.pop(); cout ‘n’; ms.top(); cout ‘n’; ms.top(); ms.top(); ms.top(); ms.top(); ms.top();
int main ()
stack of integers st; \s st.push(32); \s st.push(21); \s st.push(39); \s st.push(89); \s st.push(25); createStack(st); cout “The stack st is: “; cout “n st.size(): “; st.size(); cout “n st.top(): “; st.top(); cout “n st.pop(): “; st.pop(); createStack(st); return 0; cout “The stack

Output:

The following is a snapshot of the source code:

Code Explanation:

In order for us to access the functions that it provides, we need to include the iostream header file in our code.

In order for us to access the functions that the stack provides, we need to include the stack header file in our code.

Include the std namespace in our program so that we can make use of its classes without having to directly call it.

Make a function called createStack that we can use to generate the stack that we’ll call mystack. A collection of integers will be stored on the stack.

The beginning of the functionality known as the body of createStack.

Make a new instance of the mystack datatype and call it ms. This will be your new instance.

  1. To determine whether or not the stack contains any items, you can make use of the while loop and the empty() function.
  2. The beginning of the primary portion of the while loop.
  3. Take advantage of the top() method, which is located at the very top of the stack. The t character will open a new tab in your browser.
  4. To get rid of the element that is now at the top of the stack, use the pop() function.
  5. This brings an end to the main body of the while loop.
  6. The console should be updated with a blank line.
  7. The body of the createStack method has now come to a close.
  8. Invoke the method named main(). It is recommended that the program logic be inserted into the “body” of the main() function.
  9. The beginning of the primary body of the function ().
  10. Produce a stack object denoted by st.
  11. To add element 32 to the stack, call the push() function on the stack’s handle.
  12. To add element 21 to the stack, call the push() function on the appropriate object.
  13. The element number 39 can be added to the stack by utilizing the push() function.
  14. To add element 89 to the stack, call the push() function on the stack’s handle.
  15. To add element 25 to the stack, call the push() function on the appropriate object.
  16. The console should be updated with some text.
  17. In order to carry out the aforementioned insert actions, you will need to call the createStack method.
  18. Display on the console the total size of the stack in addition to the other text.
  19. Display in the console the item that is currently at the top of the stack.
  20. The console should be updated with some text.
  21. Remove the item that is currently at the top of the pile. After that, it will hand back any items that are still present in the stack.
  22. In order to carry out the procedures described above, call the createStack function.
  23. Following the successful execution of the program, a value must be returned.
  24. The conclusion of the primary body of function ().