Kotlin vs Java: What’s the Difference?
In this tutorial on the differences between Kotlin and Java, we will go over the most significant distinctions between the two programming languages. But, before we get into the differences between Kotlin and Java, let’s have a look at “What is Kotlin?” as well as “What is Java?” Let’s start with the Kotlin programming language:
What exactly is Kotlin?
Kotlin is a programming language that is free and open-source, and it can be executed on the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). The language is capable of running on a variety of platforms.
When it comes to object-oriented and functional programming, it is a language that provides an unfettered, self-sufficient, and distinctive platform that combines the best of both worlds.
You will learn the following skills in this tutorial:
What is Java?
Java is a programming language that is multi-platform, object-oriented, and network-centric in nature. It is a programming language that is among the most widely used. As a computing platform, it was first introduced by Sun Microsystem in 1995, and it has since become widely utilised worldwide. After that, it was acquired by the Oracle Corporation, which is still in business today.
Features of Kotlin
The following are some of the most important characteristics of Kotlin.
Provides a more condensed coding scheme
Kotlin makes use of the Java Virtual Machine (JVM), which combines the features of object-oriented programming and functional programming.
Provides for quick compiling
Kotlin is capable of supporting a wide range of extension functions without requiring any modifications to the code.
You can write Kotlin code either through an integrated development environment (IDE) or through a command-line interface (CLI).
Smart feature casting allows you to reduce application costs while simultaneously increasing the speed and performance of the application.
The following are some of the most important characteristics of Java.
Features of Java
Create a single piece of code that can be run on nearly any computing platform.
It is intended for use in the development of object-oriented applications.
Multithreaded programming with automatic memory management is possible with this language.
Because it is network-centric, it makes distributed computing easier.
The Evolution of Kotlin
The following are significant milestones in the history of Kotlin:
History of Kotlin
The first version of Kotlin, v1.0, was released in 2016.
In 2017, Google made an announcement on the first-class support for Kotlin in Android.
Asynchronous programming was made possible by the introduction of coroutines in the Kotlin v1.3 version, which was released in 2018.
Earlier this year, Google stated that Kotlin would be the preferred programming language for Android application developers going forward.
Java has a long and illustrious history.
The following are significant milestones in the history of the Java programming language.
History of JAVA
The Java programming language was originally known as OAK. Originally, it was designed to handle portable devices such as cell phones and set-top boxes. Oak was a complete and utter failure.
Sun Microsystems renamed the language “Java” in 1995 and tweaked it to take advantage of the expanding www (World Wide Web) development industry.
Later in 2009, Oracle Corporation completed its acquisition of Sun Microsystems, gaining control of three main Sun software assets: Java, MySQL, and Solaris, among others.
Difference between Kotlin and Java
Here, are differences between Kotlin vs Java
|Kotlin allows users to create an extension function.||Java doesn’t offer any extension functions.|
|Kotlin doesn’t require too much work for data classes.||Java developers write and construct a lot of elements to develop classes|
|Kotlin doesn’t offer implicit conversions.||Java supports implicit conversions.|
|There are no null variables or objects in Kotlin.||Null variable or objects are part of Java language.|
|Kotlin combines features of both object-oriented and functional programming.||Java is limited to object-oriented programming.|
|Kotlin doesn’t support static members.||Java uses static members.|
|Variables of a primitive type are objects||Variables of a primitive type aren’t objects|
|In Kotlin, we can have one or more secondary constructors.||In Java, we can’t have secondary constructors. However, it can have multiple constructors.|
|Kotlin string template also supports expression.||Java string doesn’t support expression like Kotlin.|
|It’s quite easier to deploy Kotlin code.||It is hard to deploy Java code.|
|Kotlin programs don’t require semicolons in their program.||Java program does need a semicolon.|
|In Kotlin, coroutine are concurrency design pattern which can be used to simplify code.||Java uses two coroutine options as 1) Rx Java and 2) Project loom.|
|Kotlin doesn’t have any wildcard-types.||Wide-card is available in Java.|
|Kotlin’s type of system has inbuilt null safety.||NullPonter Exception is mainly responsible for the development of Java and Android.|
|Smart cast feature is available in Kotlin.||Smart cast feature in not available in Java.|
|Kotlin doesn’t require any variable datatype specifications||Java requires variable datatype specifications.|
|Kotlin supports Lambda Expression.||Lambda expressions are added in Java 8|
|Lazy-Loading feature is available in Kotlin.||This feature is not available in Java.|
|Language scripting capabilities allow you to use Kotlin directly in your Gradle build scripts||Java does not offer language scripting capabilities.|
|It supports modern programming concepts like delegates, extension, higher-order functions.||Java supports OOPS programming concept.|
|The average salary for a java developer is $104,793 per year.||The average salary for “kotlin” ranges from approximately $107,275 per year for Software Engineer to $121,034 per year for Android Developer.|
Advantage of Kotlin
The following are some of the advantages and disadvantages of Kotlin:
It is possible to extract a single common codebase that will target all of them at the same time by utilising the Kotlin Multiplatform framework.
Null safety support is built-in to Kotlin, which is a lifesaver on Android, which is replete with archaic Java-style APIs that are difficult to maintain.
The fact that it’s more compact and expressive than Java means that there is less opportunity for error.
Provides coding standards that are easy to learn and utilise.
Large applications are broken down into smaller layers.
It makes extensive use of function types, as well as specific language constructs such as lambda expressions.
It assists developers in the development of extension functionalities.
The programme provides a very easy and virtually entirely automatic method of building data classes.
Because Kotlin is a statically typed programming language, it is incredibly simple to read and write.
It is possible to share and utilise information from Java in a number of different ways with this language.
Writing new code in Kotlin will take less time than in other programming languages.
Deploying and maintaining Kotlin code at a large scale is a lot less difficult.
Advantages of Java
The following are some of the advantages and disadvantages of Java.
Checked exceptions that aid in the detection and resolution of errors
There is extensive documentation available.
There is a vast pool of highly qualified developers available.
A large number of third-party libraries are available.
It enables you to create standard programmes and code that may be reused.
It is a multi-threaded environment that allows you to carry out multiple tasks at the same time in a programme or application.
Exceptional overall performance
Libraries that are simple to navigate
Disadvantage of Kotlin
The following are some disadvantages and drawbacks of using Kotlin:
Because it is a small developer community, it does not have access to learning materials or expert assistance.
Java does not provide a mechanism for catching checked exceptions, which could result in problems.
Although Kotlin has a slower compilation speed than Java, because it is a very declarative language, it can occasionally be used to generate large quantities of boilerplate in the corresponding JVM bytecode.
Disadvantages of Java
The following are some of the difficulties and drawbacks of Java:
Because of a number of constraints, it is not particularly well suited for Android API design.
A significant amount of manual labour is required, which increases the number of potential errors.
Because of the JIT compiler, the programme is relatively sluggish.
Java has high requirements for both memory and computing power.
Low-level programming structures, such as pointers, are not supported by this version of the language.
You have no control over garbage collection because Java does not include functions such as delete(), free(), and other similar ones ().
Which is preferable?
When all of the disadvantages of Java are taken into consideration, particularly the problem with NullPointerExceptions, it appears that Kotlin is the superior language among the two.
Despite this, Java is still an important programming language for Android app development because the Android operating system is built on the Java programming language.
If you want to ensure that your Android app development services are future-proofed, you should engage Kotlin developers to help you with the task.