Black Box Testing

What is BLACK Box Testing? Techniques, Example & Types

Testing in a Black Box
When it comes to software testing, black box testing is a technique in which the capabilities of software applications are tested without having any knowledge of the internal code structure, implementation details, or internal routes of the software programme. When it comes to software testing, the input and output of software applications are the primary focus, and it is totally dependent on software requirements and specifications. Behavioral testing is another term for this type of testing.

Image of a BLACK BOX for testing
Any software system that you want to test can be represented by the Black-Box described above. As an example, an operating system such as Windows, a website such as Google, a database such as Oracle, or even your own custom application are all possibilities. Under Black Box Testing, you can test these apps by concentrating just on their inputs and outputs without having any knowledge of their internal code implementation. Take a look at the following video tutorial:

How to do BlackBox Testing

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What is BlackBox Testing and How Does It Work?
The following are the general procedures to be followed while doing any form of Black Box Testing.

Initially, the system’s needs and specifications are scrutinised in detail.
The tester selects legitimate inputs (a positive test scenario) in order to determine whether or not the SUT processes them correctly. In addition, some faulty inputs (negative test scenario) are selected to ensure that the SUT is capable of detecting them when they occur.
The tester determines the predicted outputs for each and every one of the inputs.
The software tester creates test cases based on the inputs that have been selected.
The test cases are put through their paces.
The actual outputs of software are compared to the intended outputs by the software tester.
If there are any defects, they are repaired and the product is retested.
There are several different types of black box testing.
There are many different forms of Black Box Testing, however the following are the most commonly used:

Types of Black Box Testing

This sort of black box testing is connected to the functional requirements of a system and is carried out by software testers. It is also known as functional requirement testing.
Non-functional testing — This type of black box testing is not concerned with the testing of specific functionality, but rather with the testing of non-functional requirements such as performance, scalability, and usability.
When code updates, upgrades, or other system maintenance are performed, regression testing is performed to ensure that the new code does not have an adverse effect on the current system code.
The following are the tools used for Black Box Testing:
The tools that are utilised for black box testing are mostly determined by the sort of black box testing that is being performed.

Tools used for Black Box Testing:

QTP and Selenium are two tools that can be used for functional and regression testing.
You can use the following tools for non-functional tests: LoadRunner, Jmeter, and Black Box Testing Techniques.
The following are the most widely utilised test strategies among the several that are employed in Black box testing.

Black Box Testing Techniques

Equivalence Class Testing is a technique for reducing the number of available test cases to an optimal level while still maintaining appropriate test coverage and coverage.
When it comes to boundary value testing, the values at the boundaries are what’s important to look for. In this technique, the system determines if a specific range of data is acceptable or not. It is really beneficial in terms of lowering the amount of test instances. It is particularly appropriate for systems in which an input falls within a specific range of values.
Testing with a Decision Table: A decision table is a matrix that organises causes and their effects. Each column contains a different combination of letters.
Testing in Black Box and White Box Environments: A Comparison
Image of Black Box Testing and White Box Testing in comparison

Comparison of Black Box and White Box Testing:

Comparison of Black Box and White Box Testing image

Black Box Testing White Box Testing
the main focus of black box testing is on the validation of your functional requirements. White Box Testing (Unit Testing) validates internal structure and working of your software code
Black box testing gives abstraction from code and focuses on testing effort on the software system behavior. To conduct White Box Testing, knowledge of underlying programming language is essential. Current day software systems use a variety of programming languages and technologies and its not possible to know all of them.
Black box testing facilitates testing communication amongst modules White box testing does not facilitate testing communication amongst modules

Black Box Testing and Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

Black Box Testing The primary focus of black box testing is on the validation of your functional requirements. White Box Testing is concerned with the validation of your technical requirements.
White box testing (also known as unit testing) is used to verify the internal structure and functionality of your software code.
In black box testing, code is abstracted from the testing effort, which is concentrated on the behaviour of the software system.
Knowledge of the underlying programming language is required in order to conduct White Box Testing effectively. A wide range of programming languages and technologies are used in today’s software systems, and it is impossible to get familiar with them all.
Black box testing makes it easier to communicate amongst modules while testing.
White box testing does not allow for communication between modules to be tested in a more efficient manner.
Testing in the Black Box and the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)
It is important to note that black box testing has its own life cycle, which is known as the Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC), and that it is relevant to every level of the Software Development Life Cycle of Software Engineering.

Requirement gathering — This is the first stage of the SDLC, and it is during this stage that a requirement is compiled. This stage includes the participation of software testers as well.
Test Planning and Analysis — The types of testing that will be used on the project are determined. A Test Plan is developed, which identifies potential project risks as well as strategies for mitigating them.
Development of test cases and scripts on the basis of software requirement documents is done during this stage of the development process.
Test Case Execution– During this stage, the Test Cases that have been prepared are put into action. If there are any bugs, they are corrected and re-tested.